By now, we’ve all heard of the trolls.
The bots and fake accounts that try to spread misinformation, spam, and promote fake news and propaganda online.
But a new study suggests that some of the most effective trolling tactics may not actually be the most accurate, but the ones that are most effective are those that target the most vulnerable in society: women.
The study was published in the journal Computers in Human Behavior, and the researchers describe the technique as “gender-biased” trolling, in which gender bias plays a major role in how a targeted message is interpreted by the troll.
“There are very few studies that examine the effects of gender bias on how trolls use information,” said lead author Dr. Sarah R. Johnson, a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
“This study demonstrates the potential impact of gender biased trolling on the use of internet platforms by the online community.”
Johnson and her colleagues conducted a study with over 500 online users to test the impact of a gender-biased trolling technique called gender bias.
The participants read a story about a woman who was bullied in school and received a message that was gender biased, which the researchers deemed to be a gender bias message.
The researchers also tested the trolls’ use of gender-based messages to target the female participants.
The trolling method was used in two different scenarios: a negative, non-gender-based message was sent to a female participant, and a positive, gender-related message was also sent to the female participant.
The negative message was received by a male participant, who was more likely to respond than the female.
In both the negative and positive cases, the male participant was more aggressive in their response to the negative message.
The researchers also compared the results of the two trolling strategies.
They used data from a group of college students, who were asked to read three different stories about women in a classroom.
The students were then randomly assigned to read either a positive or negative message in response to a gender biased message.
For the positive message, the students were asked whether they would be more likely or less likely to answer a negative message than a positive one.
In contrast, the negative, gender biased messages were not tested.
The trolls were more likely than the other students to answer the negative messages, with the majority of students responding “yes” to the message.
In a second experiment, the researchers asked the same students to read a negative or positive message but instead of the negative or negative, the message was gender neutral.
In this second experiment only a third of the students responded to the gender biased and neutral messages.
In addition, the trolls were much more likely and aggressive in the response to both negative and neutral gender biased messaging than the students who were not targeted by the gender bias messages.
The research shows that women are most likely to be targeted by gender biased responses.
The female students who received the gender-neutral message were more than twice as likely as those who received both the gender and the negative messaging to be more aggressive, and three times more likely.
Additionally, the gender based messages were perceived as more threatening to women, which was not the case for men.
“It is clear that gender biased interactions are particularly problematic for women in STEM,” the authors concluded.
“Gender biased interactions can be particularly harmful for women and children as a result of these types of messages being targeted against women, particularly women of color.”
The researchers said that in order to combat gender bias online, the best way to deal with trolls is to address the biases and harassment that they create online.
The study is a reminder that the Internet is a dangerous place, and that you need to take action to protect yourself.
“If you are a female in a STEM field, this study is your best bet to prevent these types in the future,” Johnson said.
“These types of threats are not going away anytime soon.
If you have a female student, they may not be the first one that comes up in your life.
You have to make sure that you are aware of the fact that you have these trolls around, and how to protect them.”
If you have any questions, comments, or concerns, please contact the authors,” she added.